Tuesday, May 26, 2020
On the Latest Development of Modern English Vocabulary AbstractÃ¯ ¼Å¡ As one of the three elements of language, vocabulary is sensitive to the fastest change. Modern English vocabulary distributed in many areas always keeps developing. Though scholars at home and abroad make great progress on English new words, it is far from satisfaction. This paper, which is based on the previous findings, begins with the definition of English new words and its study actuality. As new vocabulary is a mirror of social development, the source of its improvement distributes in more than ten semantic fields reflecting the ever-changing contemporary world in an all-round way. Besides, the paper investigates the formation of English new words which is on theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬Å"Henry James is afraid he is wholly unable to aid me in collecting words either of his own invention or of anyone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s.Ã¢â¬ (Gao, 1998, p.11). The existing lexicology thinks little of modern English new vocabulary. The reasons are just like follows: firstly, uncerta inty on the definition and scale of new words; Secondly, incompleteness on the collecting of new words; lastly, without authority standard and few is edited into dictionaries and books (Deng, 2005, p.49). However, as professor Wang Rongpei said, Ã¢â¬Å"As for new words, we cannot ignore them just because they havenÃ¢â¬â¢t been edited into dictionaries or accepted by the Standard EnglishÃ¢â¬ (2006). We should attach importance to its development, formation and trend. 3. The Sources of English New Words New words are being invented or introduced all the time. Sometimes a new word is produced by a single person only, in some special situations. These words are called nonce words used only once or coined for one particular occasion, and never occur again. Sometimes a new word coined by a single speaker is used by a small group, such as the staff of the institution, and exists for a time without gaining any wider circulation. Sometimes a new word is coined by a number of people; such a word becomes an accepted part of language, and is fixed in a dictionary. When a new product is made, a new conception comes in manÃ¢â¬â¢s thought, and a new name must be found, that is, a newShow MoreRelatedOld English Period1121 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOld English (450-1100 AD) Old English was the language the invading Germanic Tribes spoke in Britain. Old English did not sound or look like English today. Nevertheless, about half of the most commonly used words in Modern English were derived from Old English words. Some example of words taken from Old English are be, strong and water. Old English was popular until around 1100. When the Romans withdrew from England in the early 5th century, they left a political vacuum. The Celts ofRead MoreThe best teaching aid is a piece of chalk1458 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"What else?Ã¢â¬ would be their common response. Today, however, teaching aids abound. From a simple letter set painstakingly cut out by a devoted teacher, through electronic projection equipment, DVD sound systems, televisions and computers, to the latest interactive whiteboard, they introduce a wealth of variety and differing impact to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s classroom. Any discussion of this statement will therefore be remiss if I do not introduce and examine some available alternatives and their benefits and limitationsRead MoreThe Causes of Semantic Change1637 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages And yet a thorough understanding of the phenomena involved .in semantic change is impossible unless the whys and wherefores become known. This is of primary importance as it may lead eventually to a clearer, interpretation of language development. The vocabulary is the most flexible part of the language and it is precisely its semantic aspect that responds most readily to every change in the human activity in whatever sphere it may happen to take place. The causes of semantic changes may be groupedRead MoreHow Hip Hop Is The Rapid Development Of Its Lexicons Essay2002 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesOne of the most obvious signs of a changing language is the rapid development of its lexicons. As society changes, so does its language. American dictionaries have been expanding vastly over the past thirty years, with words created for many different purposes. Words are created for many different reasons including scientific use, technological advances, and lastly, words that are created in contemporary culture. Expressions that have been created by the youth have become such a part of AmericanRead MoreThe Main Problems of Lexicography4849 Words Ã |Ã 20 PagesThe main problems of lexicography The most burning issues of lexicography are connected with the selection of head-words, the arrangement and contents of the vocabulary entry, the principles of sense definitions and the semantic and functional classification of words. In the first place it is the problem of how far a general descriptive dictionary, whether unilingual or bilingual, should admit the historical element. In fact, the term current usageÃ¢â¬ is disconcertingly elastic, it may, for instanceRead MoreEducation: The Imperative Need for Earlier Foreign Language Study 2223 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesfamiliarize, and prepare students to communicate with non-English speakers in a polylingual world. If they donÃ¢â¬â¢t, the system will constrict the futures of many through the erasure of teaching additional languages. In the very rarely admitted truth that most Americans do not wish to hear, English is not the most commonly spoken language. Therefore, Arizona needs to quit acting like it is the only spoken language. By total number of speakers, English is the fourth most commonly spoken language with 510Read MoreSlang in American and English Newspapers3926 Words Ã |Ã 16 PagesThe Use of Slang in Modern American And British Newspapers Faculty: Foreign Languages Department: English and Linguistics Year: 3 Group: 14 Student: Maria Zakharyan Supervisor: L. Sargsyan Yerevan 2012 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................2 CHAPTER I. THE SLANG IN MODERN ENGLISH. 1.1. The StylisticRead MoreEducating Children s Academic Achievement2102 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesobservations in my school parents participation in their children s schooling improves children s academic achievement, helps parents develop positive attitudes towards school, and a better understanding of the schooling process. In our country English is taught from Grade 1 and books are designed for parents to help with kids assignments. This is because both parents and children can benefit by learning the language together. Despite these advantages, it is not always easy for parents to find timeRead MoreThe Impact of English Language on Contemporary World: a Global Perspective5257 Words Ã |Ã 22 PagesIMPACT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE ON CONTEMPORARY WORLD: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE G. RAJA SEKHAR* *Assistant Professor, Department of English, Krishnaveni Engineering College, Narasaraopet, Andhra Pradesh, India. ABSTRACT Language has been affected by the significant trend of globalization considerably in the last two decades. Literally, we have revolutionary changes in communication and technology in 21st century and language has played a vital role to enable us to achieve and experience these developments. It isRead MoreThe Debate Over Target Language2654 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pages1988, which separated the study of modern foreign languages (MFL) into four skill areas, (speaking, listening, writing and reading) with a key emphasis on practical communication (Meiring, Norman, 2002). The latest subject specific Ofsted report for MFL highlights the ineffective use of TL in the classroom as a key feature in weak teaching. The report indicates that only using the TL for Ã¢â¬Ëorganisational matters and for praiseÃ¢â¬â¢ and resorting to Ã¢â¬Ëimmediate English transl ationsÃ¢â¬â¢, and not providing the
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Fear played a big role in Things Fall Apart. Mainly fear was seen ruling OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s life, but also a couple of the other inhabitants of Umuofia. It was seen in many situations dictating the charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ actions. Each of the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s actions then led up to the understanding of the theme in Things Fall Apart, fear can dictate choices. Through the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts, the theme was initially found. For example, in the text, Achebe states, Ã¢â¬Å"Perhaps down in his heart Okonkwo was not a cruel man. But his whole life was dominated by fear, the fear of failure and weakness. It was not external but lay deep within himself lest he should be found to resemble his fatherÃ¢â¬ (Achebe 13). The narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s thought allows the reader to determine that allÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In a time of need, Okonkwo decides to improve his exterior image, instead of being the true father that Ikemefuna thought he was. A true father would have put his son before anything else and would have tried to keep Ikemefuna out of such a fatal situation. Lastly, Achebe states, Ã¢â¬Å"Obierika, who had been gazing steadily at his friendÃ¢â¬â¢s dangling body, turned suddenly to the District Commisioner and said ferociously: Ã¢â¬ËThat man was one of the greatest men in Umuofia. You drove him to kill himselfÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ ( 208). Okonkwo knows his clan wonÃ¢â¬â¢t go to war and he does not want to continue to be a part of such a weak clan. Though his lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose was to be nothing like his father, he is viewed as even weaker than Unoka. Since, suicide is Ã¢â¬Å"an abomination for a man to take his own lifeÃ¢â¬ (207). Through OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s actions, the theme is clearly highlighted. Not only is the theme underlined through OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s actions, but also through the other characterÃ¢â¬â¢s actions. In the text it states,Ã¢â¬ A strange and sudden weakness descended on EkwefiÃ¢â¬ ¦EzinmaÃ¢â¬â¢s voice soon faded away and only Chielo was heard moving father and farther in the distanceÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ËI am following Chielo,Ã¢â¬â¢ she replied and disappeared in the darknessÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Achebe 101-103). Ekwefi fears of losing her only daughter, Ezinma. Instead of being fearful of Chielo and the gods, she finds the nerve follow Chielo. In this scenario, she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t allow the fear of the gods get to her head, but instead uses the fear of losing herShow MoreRelatedChinua Achebe s Things Fall Apart1164 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPardis Kianoush Western Civilization II Nicole Watkins 11/26/2014 Things Fall Apart Things Fall Apart, written by Chinua Achebe is a story which follows the life and foreshadowed downfall of Okonkwo, a respected warrior in his Umuofia clan in Nigeria. Disgusted by his late father, Unoka, and the reputation of incompetence and laziness he left behind, Okonkwo was determined to not let history repeat itself. He worked diligently and became a wealthy patriarch for his family. The beginning of OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreThings Fall Apart By Chinua Achebe901 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThings Fall Apart Africa is the most diverse continent on this planet, linguistically speaking. There are thousands of languages spoken within many different cultures of people in Africa. Although most of Africa received freedom in mid-late 20th century, it has a very rich history and a strong background on which it is built. After colonization of Africa by the Europeans, the Europeans and their writings looked at Africa as having no diversity or culture in its colonized stage. Things Fall ApartRead MoreFahrenheit 451 Comparison Essay1698 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshistory books and literary classics such as Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury and Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe. In Fahrenheit 451, the main character, Guy Montag is fighting against the technological revolution taking place in the 23rd century. He battles with a society full of censorship, where everyone is too caught up with their new gadgets to have meaningful conversations. Okwonko, the main character of Things Fall Apart, is also fightin g a battle, a battle against the Europeans who are invadingRead MoreThe Struggle Between Tradition and Change1056 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOctober 17, 2012 In Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, the reader is taken on a literary journey to a Nigerian tribe, the Umuofia, to experience first-hand the struggles of a warrior named Okonkwo. At first glance, the novel appears to be written for a very specific audience: scholars familiar with Nigerian history, traditions, and culture. However, upon further examination the novel reveals itself to be a striking chronicle of human experiences, universal themes, and timeless struggles thatRead MoreThe Power of Fear in Things Fall Apart Essays1039 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The Power of Fear in Things Fall Apart In the novel Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, the theme of the power of fear is presented throughout the whole book and is mainly expressed in the main character, Okonkwo. Okonkwo strives all of his life to become a stronger, more powerful, and a successful individual. He wants to do this because his father was a slack and lazy person who lived most of his life in debt and had no titles to his name. People often looked at his father as a women figureRead MoreKite Runner1198 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAnnabelle Curtis Curtis 1 English Universal Theme The Fragility of Father-Son Relationships Ã¢â¬Å"Children arenÃ¢â¬â¢t coloring books. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t get to fill them with your favorite colorsÃ¢â¬ (Hosseini 21). Rahim Khan said to Baba when he talks about Amir lacking manly qualities; he explains to Baba that he shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t force a child to be like them. All fathersÃ¢â¬â¢ parenting style is different from a mothersÃ¢â¬â¢ parenting style when it comes to a male child. What a male child need the most is hisRead MoreAnjalique Raghunauth. Mr. Maclachlan. Eng3Uo. January 20Th,1433 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmaterial provider, and on the other he has his fear of weakness and failure, that leads to his downfall. In a way he is considered a tragic hero. A tragic hero holds a position of power and prestige, chooses his course of action, possesses a tragic flaw, and gains awareness of circumstances that lead to his fall. Okonkwo s tragic flaw is his fear of weakness, failure and his refusal to accept change. He is demonstrated in the beginning as a cold hearted fear less man. But as the story moves on he slowlyRead MoreThe Tradgedy of Okonkwo849 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Tragedy of Okonkwo In the book Things Fall Apart there are many themes. One of the themes is Change, in which Okonkwo faces a lot of. Another theme in this book is how important family is in the Ibo culture. What it means to be a man in the Ibo culture is also a major theme in this book. Change is one of the biggest themes in this book. Okonkwo goes through a lot of changes for the worse. One example of a change for Okonkwo is when he was exiled for seven years. Okonkwo was exiledRead MoreChinua Achebe s Things Fall Apart1069 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThings Fall Apart was written by a Nigerian man named Chinua Achebe in 1958, with the intentions of fully exploiting the truth and creating a new perspective about African culture. Seeing as though Achebe lived through the colonization of the Igbo people, he was able to write without stereotyping Africans and European people. Achebe purposefully wrote this novel in English instead of Igbo language because he wanted the perspective shared across Europe to defeat previously construed beliefs of theRead MoreChinua AchebeÃ¢â¬â¢s Things Fall Apart Essay1740 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages In the novel, Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, the setting sets forth in Umofia, a lower Nigerian Tribe and Mbanta, OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s motherÃ¢â ¬â¢s kinsmen. The novel begins with a man, whose name is Okonkwo, a noble warrior, resides in Umofia, with his three wives and nine children. Okonkwo is haunted by his father, UnokaÃ¢â¬â¢s disgraceful past. Okonkwo desires his son to be a tough, powerful warrior. Thus, this being said causes havoc upon OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s families, tearing Nwoye and Okonkwo apart. Meanwhile, missionaries
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Lack Of Privacy In 1984 Essay The first person that I have interviewed is Ella, she is an NYU Graduate who is working as a Web Designer and is earning approximately $45,000 a year. She lives in Brooklyn, New York for seven years. Ella claims that she liked Dodge Grand Caravan as her first choice. First of all, she likes the ad because its a family car that serves/fits all her needs. Secondly, she likes this ad because the color red is her favorite color. According to Ellas interpretation, she feels that by looking at the advertisement about the Dodge Grand Caravan a person will get all the explanation he/she needs. Her second choice was Volvo which looks like a very nice car, but does not apply to the need of a customer. She would prefer to know the features that the car is offering. She feels that the name of the brand is hidden because its all the way on top and on the edge that it would not be visible to the eye of the customer. Her third choice was Ford Expedition, because looking at the magazine ad she feels that it explains the variation of the car. However, she thinks that the ad does not apply why it was advertised for and that there is not enough description to the car. Her fourth choice was Suzuki, because she claims that the ad itself takes a person attention. Therefore, she also liked that the typeface S and Suzuki overlaps on top of each other. Her Fifth choice was Toyota, because she thinks its a nice looking car, but the theme that was used for this ad is a little bit funny. She feels that way because the theme does not fit to the description of the car. Her suggestion for this ad is to create more ideas, (i.e. the name of the brand should be visible; the slogan should be different in the sense that it should apply to the description of the car). Svetlana KhanimovaThe second person that I have interviewed is Milana. She is a 22 years old nurse from Brooklyn, N.Y. Milana earns about $50,000 a year she likes to play volleyball and read novels in her spare time. Her first choice was the All new Dodge Grand Caravan, because of two reasons: First of all she said thats its a big family car and it is red color which caught her attention very fast. Second, this model contains a lot of details that can help her get as much information as she needs. Her second choice was Ford Expedition, because it gave her a good impression since she likes to travel a lot and therefore this appearance fulfills her needs. She feels that this car ad claims that it can handle traveling. In addition, it has different models and nice logo. She feels that this advertisement needs to put more information about this model. Her third choice was Suzuki, because the liked the comparison between the Suzuki and the cheetah, which transforms into high speed. In add ition, she feels that the car is luxurious and big enough for the family. Also it gives enough information and has a good description of the car. Her forth choice is Volvo; she claims that it is a powerful car and can handle all the roads. She likes what it says on the side Volvo for life, but she also feels that there is not enough information about the features of the car. Her fifth choice is Toyota; she feels that it is not a very successful ad because it doesnt convince her to buy the car. She thinks that the car is too far, it needs to be closer and side wise, so that the customer can see the whole model. She also feels that the information that Toyota provides is very limited. Maya is the third person that I have interviewed. She is a 21 female that lives in Brooklyn, N.Y. She is a college student who lives with her parents. Her hobbies include, playing volleyball, basketball, and ice scatting. Mayas first choice was the Dodge Grand Caravan, because it caught her eyes to the information that she needs. For example, it provides the information that her and her family need. Her second choice was Toyota because she claims that its a pretty white car that does not qualify to the specific descriptions that a consumer might need. She feels that the theme is kind of cute but it doesnt really apply to the car. Her third choice was Suzuki, because she liked the motion, the ad captured her attention. She also liked the logo of Suzuki. Her fourth choice was Ford, because by looking at the ad she feels that the information that is given there is very suitable and reliable. Her fifth choice was Volvo, because it does not provide so many details like Dodge, its simple. Olga is a 24-year-old pharmacist from Brooklyn, New York. She makes approximately $60,000 a year and what interest her the most is medicine, design, and skiing. Olgas first choice as her favorite car ad was the Dodge Grand Caravan, because she liked the interior and the exterior design of the car that is suitable for the whole family. In her opinion she states that it is the best advertisement for the car. Her second choice would be Ford, because she feels that the ad portrays the message that you can drive anywhere and be everywhere. She said that in order for this ad to be successful it needs to add more information about the car (i.e. its features, price and qualities). Her third choice would be Suzuki, because you can see the car in motion. According to Olgas opinion she feels that in order to make the ad more successful the advertiser needs to change the appearance of an ad. For instance, the name Suzuki is on the side where it is not visible. Her forth choice would be Volvo, be cause she thinks that the ad claims that it can cross roads, cross borders, cross town and cross country. But she feels that the ad is lacking information about its features and characteristics. Her fifth choice would be Toyota; according to Olga, if I would see this ad on a certain magazine it would not capture my attention. Toyota is using such a theme that I think is so bizarre and so not attractive to the customer.Marina is a 26 years old college graduate from Brooklyn, New York. She works as an accountant and earn approximately $80,000 a year. Her favorite thing to do is read novels, listen to music, and go shopping. Her fist choice as a customer is Dodge Grand Caravan, because she feels that, by looking at the other ads it caught my attention directly. It specifies the information that I prefer to buy and would recommend my family and friends. Marinas second choice was Ford Expedition. She feels that this magazine advertising is breath taking because the view and the backgroun d is so beautifully captured which takes her attention towards the view, the car and also the description. Her third choice of the five advertisements was Volvo. She liked the view and how they positioned the car being in motion. Therefore, she feels that there was less description to this car or that this ad does not have the necessary availabilitys that she as the customer would want to find out. Her forth choice was Toyota. Well, she feels that the name itself sounds very attractive. She thinks that this ad is very simple, because the ad provides the picture, the slogan, and the phone number of Toyota dealers for people who have questions about the car. Her fifth choice was Suzuki, because of how it was captured in the motion between a car and two cheetahs. Therefore, it gives a direct info of how this car races promptly faster than the tow cheetahs. She feels that the background caption is really nice and simple because it in the desert. She also thinks, the typeface/logo that w as used to design this ad is stupendous. Richard Swinburne's The Problem of Evil: God's E EssayElena is a college student from Staten Island. She works as a clerk and earns about $20,000 a year. She likes to hang out, play volleyball and likes pets. Her first choice is Dodge Grand Caravan, because the ad offers a small television that is inside the car which is good for parents who have children. The disadvantage of this ad is that it has too much information and that there is just not enough time for busy parents to take time to actually read it. Her second choice is Volvo, because she likes the form of the car. She would like to know the price and the features of the car. She feels that this ad portrays the massage of reliability and safety. Her third choice is Suzuki, because it informs a person the stating price of the car. She believes that the background of the ad is suitable for this type of an advertisement. Moreover, the award shows that the car was approved by other people. Her forth choice is Ford Expedition, b ecause the ad creates this image that it can take you anywhere, under any condition. She believes that its a family car but she feels something is lacking from this ad, like the features inside the car. Her fifth choice was Toyota; she feels that there is not enough information (i.e. how many miles will the electricity last; how far can you go with the car). She believes that this type of a car is good for the environment because there is less pollution. The ad that I like the most is the Dodge Grand Caravan, because its a family car and it is in red which catches my attention very fast. Moreover, the ad contains a lot of details that explains the cars features and expectations. Unlike the Toyota ad, I think that Dodge Grand Caravan will sell the most. In the Toyota advertisement, the car is too far, it needs to be more closer and side wise so that it will catch the eye of the consumer. Second, I think that it would help to put the name of the car on the top rather than on the botto m so that the customer should know what brand name he/she is looking at. Furthermore, it would probably be a good idea to change the theme or the slogan of the ad because to me it doesnt make any sense. The reason why I feel that Dodge Grand Caravan would sell the most is because the ad provides adequate information about the car. But at the same time I feel that Dodge Grand Caravan has given a lot of information about the car that is unnecessary and time consuming. In my opinion a good ad needs to be clever, original, that should also sell. We can make a good advertisement work if we create a suitable theme/slogan, background that will set off this image in the consumer eye that its one of a kind and that there is no other product like it. If the advertisement for a particular product is small and has small print with wrong use of colors and textures then the ultimate consumer wont even notice the ad. I think that the appearance of a product does play a role in advertisement. Slogans#61623; Make every day good to the last drop(Maxwell House)#61623; Water, Reborn(Brita)#61623; Once you pop you cant stop(Pringles)#61623; Think Light(Merit cigarette)#61623; Open up to complete relief(Claritin D 24 hours)#61623; Pleasure, cleverly disguised as business(Northwest Airlines)#61623; This could cause you to shave a good 30 seconds off your shower. (Honey Nut)#61623; Come to where the flavor is (Marlboro)#61623; How to relax and unwind after sawing the world(Smirnoff)#61623; The force that pulls you together(Gravity, fragrance for men)1. Which of the 5 ads received the most favorable rank (lowest average)?The lowest favorable ads were Toyota and Volvo. 2. Which of the 5 ads received the least favorable rank (highest average)?Within the 5 ads consumers preferred the advertisement on the Dodge Grand Caravan, Suzuki, and Ford Expedition. 3. Which themes had the highest association scores?The themes that had the highest association scores are as follows: Once you pop you cant stop; How to relax and unwind after sawing the world; Come to where the flavor is; Water, Reborn and Make every day good to the last drop. 4. Which themes had the lowest association scores?The themes that had the lowest association scores are as follows: The force that pulls you together; This could cause you to shave a good 30 seconds off your shower; Pleasure, cleverly disguised as business; Open up to complete relief and Think Light.
Sunday, April 12, 2020
B.F. Skinner's theory, positive reinforcement essays In B.F. Skinner's theory, positive reinforcement is defined as a presented stimuli that works to increase or strengthen the probability of a response. An example of this would be a food treat for a dog in return for sitting behavior. A negative reinforcement is defined as the removal of stimuli that acts to increase or strengthen a response. An example of this would be yelling at a child to stop crying, and having the crying behavior stop. While the action of yelling was negative, the response was positive, in that the child stopped crying, thus increasing the likelihood that a person will yell to get the child to stop crying. Punishment is defined as an action to temporarily repress behavior, such as the removal of television privileges for a child who fails a class. This "punishment" would temporarily serve as a repression to the behavior of receiving bad Walden II, B.F. Skinner's world of utopia, is a model illustration of what needs to be done in order for humans to be happy, rather than just furthering the happiness of the ruling class or the majority. The idea that humans are born with nothing, that we are then the product of our history, and thus, that we learn all the problems we have, is a wonderful idea. If this were true, then Walden II would work: no one born in the world would learn the behaviors, and everyone who had previously learned them could simply unlearn them. Without social pressures, and with all needs met, there would be no need for corruption. In the modern world, however, this idea is just that: an idea. Even if all the technologies were in place, we now know, through modern medicine and psychiatry that some behaviors are inane, and thus very difficult to unlearn. While life in Walden II would be blissful, it would also be impossible. Secondary reinforcers are those that get their power from associations with primary reinforcers...
Wednesday, March 11, 2020
Thesis vs. Dissertation. How to Tell One From The Other If youve considered grad school- or simply know someone who has an advanced degree- youve likely heard about theses and dissertations. Both are long research papers that a student submits at the conclusion of his or her studies. Such papers are required in order to earn an advanced degree. But whats the difference between the two? Are the terms interchangeable? Heres the low-down. Are Theses and Dissertations the Same? According to thesaurus.com, thesis and dissertation are synonyms. Either word can be used to refer to a written discourse. Discourse is just a fancy word for a formal discussion (written or oral). Technically, the paper you write during your senior seminar as an undergrad is also a discourse. However, for clarity, people have come to use specific words to refer to papers at each level of education. An undergraduate usually writes a research paper for the senior project. A masters candidate writes a thesis. A doctoral candidate writes a dissertation. An easy way to keep the two graduate papers straight is to remember that both doctorate and dissertation start with a d. The goal of such papers, regardless of your academic level, is to assess what youve learned over the course of your school career. The paper begins with an idea that you have about something in your field. You would then do research on this subject so that you can find supporting literature or otherwise prove your idea. Along the way, your adviser will help you plan your research and guide you through any hurdles you encounter as you work on the paper. Ultimately, youll be judged on your ability to conduct research, your general knowledge of the subject matter, and your writing skills. The Differences Between Theses and Dissertations So are both papers exactly the same? Not really. Or, more accurately, not necessarily. The guidelines for a research paper vary from one educational institution to the next. Because a masters degree is one step below a doctorate, most schools have less stringent guidelines for the thesis, as you might expect. But a thesis at one university might be quite different from the thesis at another. All schools have their own standards and length requirements. Moreover, the requirements for a paper in one discipline of study can be quite different from those for another discipline. For example, an M.S. student may be required to perform some type of experiment or conduct a study that requires human participation, whereas this would be unusual for an M.A. in English or history. What Is a Thesis? In a thesis writing, your basic task is to analyze the previous works of established thinkers in your field. For example, if youre studying psychology, you may posit that an absent or inattentive father has a serious impact on his female children in terms of their ability to form healthy romantic relationships. You would then find existing literature that proves your hypothesis. Once you have finished drafting the paper, you will submit it to your adviser for a preliminary review. After youve made the suggested revisions, you will submit the new draft to a department head or director, who will approve or reject the paper. Keep in mind that most masters candidates who have followed the guidelines and worked diligently are not rejected. Approval is necessary for the awarding of the final degree. Dissertations Defined A dissertation asks a bit more of the student. Instead of focusing on the works of others to back up your idea, you will be presenting your own original ideas. Dissertation writing is more like an expert (you) writing a book. A committee will review your work, and then you will be appointed a time to defend your idea before them. The members of the committee will ask you in-depth questions about what youve written and how you developed your ideas. The panel may request revisions to the dissertation, after which you would go through another defense. Once the paper is approved, you will be qualified to earn your doctorate degree. Heres a simplified way of illustrating the difference between a masters thesis and a doctoral dissertation: A masters candidate could theoretically make his or her case by using the dissertation of another. Now that you know more about theses and dissertations, you can feel more confident about your applications to grad school, knowing what will be expected of you.
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Organizational Behavior Forces - Term Paper Example These factors either independently or collectively possess a huge potential in building an organizations standing in the market. An Organization is a body comprised of several identities and particular structure assembled together under a single roof for the achievement of a particular goal or a set of identified objectives. As stated by Carter McNamara (2007), an organization is basically a group of people that are intentionally structured to achieve a complete and a common target of aims. These organizations can consist of either two to millions of people. This firm structure called as an organization possesses a great deal of factors that can affect it directly and indirectly as well. Similarly, an organization includes internal and external factors that can lay down several impacts and effects upon it. The internal factors possess the capability to inspire the organizational activities internally. Contrarily, the external factors can influence the organizational acts externally. The internal forces of an organization include the organizational mission, the structure and strategy of the organization, the organizational design, the organizational culture, the administration and the top team of the organization and many others. The organizational mission enables the basic standing of the organization. If the mission of a firm is strong and stable, the entire organizational team is focused towards achieving and accomplishing the goal. Contrarily, if the organizational goal is unidentified and unclear, the team shows no motivation and encouragement towards the goal accomplishment. The organizational structure and strategy are the essential forces that lay down the basis for the organizational development and progress (Burke, 1982). Through the strategy of an organization, all the team members can be bonded and united and can be motivated towards the attainment of the organizational goal. The
Friday, February 7, 2020
Standardization of Accounting Regulations - Essay Example As a result of this, the effect of standardization of accounting must be regarded beyond capital market settings; therefore, these effects should also be examined on other areas, including flows of information, policies and people. Although the way standardization of accounting affects accounting information more especially on the internet is rather vague, these transfers are relatively unstructured and unregulated in current accounting practices. "However, technologies in accounting are legitimizing certain sets of information, and give attention to certain voices in the quest for global attention." (Graham & Neu, 2003) Such a body is the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), it assist the international governments handle tackle the economic, social, and governance challenges of a global economy. They scrutinize government and help examine such performance indicators as laundering, transportation, and pension. Also, they help to review process performance measurements both to observe and to direct government performance. The funding of internet information is provided largely by the U.S Department of Defense in the 1970s and 1980s, for the purpose of developing advance communications networks linking the U.S. militaries and universities, this is shaped by standardized accounting in the development of informational technical infrastructure. "Some other agencies that have helped fund Internet communication, like (The National Science Foundation and the Advanced Research Projects Agency) have also relied on accounting technologies to balance technical and economic goals." (Graham & Neu, 2003) Flow of policy Standardization of accounting has also helped to regulate foreign policies; accounting practices are most times imposed on distant sites. By and through the terms of lending conditionality, the receiving counties are coerced, albeit co-operatively, to adopt and accept mainstream neo-liberal financial policies. This scenario is evident in most third world where they are made to abide by the conditions of the lending countries. And I such cases financial assistance is given by IMF. Accounting technologies make visible certain problems, offer certain solutions, and make these solutions operational. In most cases, practices from international sources are thus mixed with resident financial practices of the country in concern so that the problem could be solved. Ultimately, this flow of policies will produced economic survival. Flow of people The standardization of Accounting has helped to keep track of people as they move from area to area. Movement of people are monitored and analyzed as they cross borders, and accounting is deemed to be a major player in the immigration policies and practices of many countries. For instance, an accounting system which manages loans to immigrants is in operation Canada. Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) makes loans to immigrants in order to assist them in various ways, and such includes transportation, proving admissibility, and general assistance (Government of Canada, 2003, as cited in Graham & Neu, 2003). Thus, the movement of people into Canada are enabled and enhanced by accounting technologies. More also, these people are monito